Mobility on demand
Compared to vehicle on demand services, mobility on demand is more focused on service than ownership. Rather than driving a vehicle, customers are driven by a service worker. Most notably, this bracket encompasses taxis and ride hailing services (or Transportation Network Companies ) like Uber, DiDi or Lyft. In the United States, these companies have doubled the size of the mobility market between 2012 and 2018 . In China they account for more than two thirds of the entire mobility market as of 2019 . Compared to ride sharing services, ride hailing is also a far more popular model, if measured by vehicle miles driven .
Like car sharing, mobility on demand services are regarded as convenient by consumers . These models can also help reduce car ownership and the need for parking space in city centers. In theory, this could reduce the number of cars on the road and thus improve traffic flow.
In real world practice, ride hailing services seem to not reduce car ownership, however. A 2018 study found that despite fast growth in usage of ride hailing in urban areas, car ownership rates increased at the same time. Moreover, ride hailing might even contribute to congestion in densely populated areas . Overall, ride hailing may not be seen or treated as a viable alternative to vehicle ownership by the general population. Conversely, just like car sharing, ride hailing services seem to be seen as a convenience alongside owning a personal car. For instance, consumer surveys in the US indicate that many users of these services do so for convenience, for example to avoid having to look for parking or when they can’t or aren't allowed to drive themselves . Furthermore, recent studies indicate that these services compete more with public transport than car ownership. As a result, ride hailing models might undermine cost efficiency and value of public transportation networks .
Overall, mobility on demand like ride hailing is a very large sector, which is regarded as convenient by consumers. Especially for people who can't drive, aren't allowed to drive or in areas where parking space is scarce, these services are a practical option. While they may reduce the need for parking space and improve traffic, real world examples seem to indicate that this is not the case. For this reason, these services allow people to travel safely and conveniently, but their contribution to an overall change in mobility is rather limited.
 Schaller Consulting. (2018). 1-2. The New Automobility: Lyft, Uber and the Future of American Cities. http://innovativemobility.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Impactsofcar2go_FiveCities_2016.pdf
 Schmidt, A., Reers, J., Irwin, B., & Loes, H. (2020). Unlock the value of mobility services: Turning business models into profits. Accenture. 6. https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/PDF-135/Accenture-Unlock-Value-of-Mobility-Services.pdf
 Heineke, K., Kloss, B., Möller, T., & Wiemuth, C. (2021, August 11). Shared mobility: Where it stands, where it’s headed. McKinsey. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-assembly/our-insights/shared-mobility-where-it-stands-where-its-headed
 Henao, A., & Marshall, W. E. (2019). The impact of ride hailing on parking (and vice versa). Journal of Transport and Land Use, 12(1), 127-147. https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2019.1392